China’s feudal society has a long span, which has experienced more than 2000 years and nine dynasties.
successive feudal dynasties were few decades or hundreds of years, but they could not escape the fate of renewal（ 330476.com ）This paper summarizes the problems that have existed in history in order to learn from it
1. Exclusive power of relatives
In the history of China, there are many kings who were usurped by their relatives, such as Western Han Dynasty and Northern Zhou Dynasty.
among them, in the early years of Western Han Dynasty, there were Lu family’s political disorder and Wang Mang’s usurping Han Dynasty in the last year. In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Dou Xian, Liang Ji, Dou Wu, he Jin and other relatives and powerful officials appeared In order to prevent his relatives from becoming big after his death, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty killed Madame Gouyi, the mother of the crown prince.
in the Ming Dynasty, the empresses were mostly selected from the families of common people and low-level officials, and did not confer important official positions on the relatives, which better limited the power of the relatives
2. Eunuch’s political disorder
The eunuch is the most loyal servant of the emperor. Many emperors like to use eunuchs to check and balance the officials and strengthen the imperial power.
however, eunuchs are often less educated and lack the bottom line in their work. If they are overemployed, they will also bring disaster to the country and greatly aggravate the internal contradictions of the ruling class In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty and Ming Dynasty, eunuchs’ power was too great, which led to serious political crisis
3. Party struggle
in the Eastern Han Dynasty, there was a bull and Li party in the Tang Dynasty, a new party in the Song Dynasty, and a dispute between the Donglin Party and the eunuch party in the Ming Dynasty For example, in the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, both relatives and eunuchs were defeated, and he Jin and ten constant servants were killed, which in turn let Dong Zhuo control the government.
the Eastern Han Dynasty collapsed.
party struggle was also an important reason for the demise of Ming Dynasty
4. Land merger
A large amount of land was concentrated in the hands of the royal family, bureaucrats and powerful landlords.
farmers lost their land and became the main force of peasant uprising. The great nobles, bureaucrats and landlords often used their privileges to pay no or less taxes, which made the national finance in trouble such as Wang Mang’s reform, Wang Anshi’s reform, Zhang Juzheng’s reform and so on, tried to solve this problem, but often achieved little effect
5. Peasant uprising
In Chinese history, due to land annexation, tyranny, natural disasters and other reasons, peasant uprisings have occurred from time to time.
is famous for Chen Sheng Wu Guang uprising, Huangjin uprising, Huangchao uprising, Li Zicheng uprising, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom uprising, etc However, when the political situation is corrupt, various measures usually do not help
6. Vassal and town separatism
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In order to defend the foreign enemies and defend the local areas, sometimes the princes and generals were given military power, administrative power, and financial power. However, it often resulted in a situation that could not be eliminated, such as the chaos of the seven states of Wu and Chu in the early Han Dynasty, the rebellion of the eight kings in the Jin Dynasty, and the rebellion of an Shi in the Tang Dynasty In order to solve this problem, the power and status of military generals were greatly restricted in Song Dynasty. Although
eliminated the problem of separatism, it led to poverty and weakness of the country and repeated defeats in foreign wars
7. Alien invasion
the Qin dynasty built the Great Wall for this purpose. As soon as the Han Dynasty was established, it faced powerful Huns.
after nearly a hundred years of accumulation, the Han Dynasty gradually defeated the Huns. Although the Tang Dynasty destroyed the Turks, it also faced the threat of Tubo and Huihe The Song Dynasty was attacked by Liao, Xixia, Jin, Mongolian and other alien nationalities, and both of them were destroyed by foreign tribes. The powerful Ming Dynasty of
was finally replaced by Nuzhen